Collector: Sandberg, J. Robert
Collector: Hallgren, Frank M.
Quantity: 8 boxes (4.5 linear
Collection Number: MS 0030
Language: English, Japanese
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Preferred Citation: Sandberg-Hallgren Collection (MS 0030). Archives & Special Collections,
University of Nebraska–Lincoln Libraries.
Lincoln, Nebraska, natives J. Robert Sandberg and Frank M. Hallgren have been
lifelong friends. They joined the same Boy Scout Troop and attended Irving Junior
High School, Lincoln High School, and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln at the same
time. When the United States entered into World War II, both men left Nebraska
separately to join the U.S. Army. They ended up at the same replacement pool in New
Guinea and both were assigned to the newly created Psychological Warfare Branch in
the Pacific Theater.
Before invading the Philippine Islands in 1944, General Douglas MacArthur formed the
first Psychological Warfare Branch within the Southwest Pacific Area of the U.S.
military forces. Lieutenant Sandberg and Sergeant Hallgren were selected from among
40 members of the new branch to receive psychological warfare training from the
Australians and Dutch. Assigned to the 5th Air Force, they were to convince the
crews of B-24 "Liberators" and B-25 "Mitchell" bombers to drop leaflets during bombing
missions. The first set of leaflets was designed to encourage the resistance of the
Philippine population. The branch created a second series of leaflets in an attempt
to weaken the morale of the Japanese troops in the area and urge them to surrender.
Hallgren and Sandberg, who accompanied flights over Japanese troops, were able to
drop these leaflets themselves. A third propaganda campaign targeted Japanese
civilians in Japan. During their army service, Sandberg and Hallgren accumulated
examples of the propaganda used in the campaigns.
Returning to Lincoln after the war, both men became involved with the University. In
1946, Hallgren began his career in the Student Affairs Division and later served as
Director of Placement. Sandberg served as Vice President of the University of
Scope and Content:
The collection contains propaganda leaflets and materials created by the
Psychological Warfare Branch, along with descriptions of target audiences,
information on the purpose of the leaflets, and translations. Selected examples of
Japanese propaganda leaflets for Australian and U.S. troops are included. Additional
items include newspapers published by the Office of War Information in the
Philippines, photographs, posters, and Sandberg's diary from May 1943 through June
Propaganda, American -- History -- 20th century --
Psychological warfare -- History -- Sources
United States. Army Air Forces. Psychological Warfare
Branch -- History -- Sources
World War, 1939-1945 -- Pamphlets
World War, 1939-1945 -- Propaganda -- History --
World War, 1939-1945 -- Psychological aspects -- History